机械工程专业英语课文翻译|环境专业英语课文翻译

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  有关环境的科技文献翻译逐渐增多,这对大量了解国外前沿的环境问题、对该学科在国内的发展也起着至关重要的作用。所以,作为环境领域的科技工作者,必须了解环境学科专业英语的翻译方法技巧以及常用的词汇。以下是小编整理的环境专业英语课文翻译,欢迎阅读。

  【课文】

  What is the book about?

  The goal of the book is to enable engineering and science students to understand the environmental issues of interdisciplinary research: their causes, why they are concerned, and how we control them. This book includes:

  What does it mean to describe the environment and the environment

  Information on the underlying causes of environmental destruction

  Understand the nature of environmental problems and the basic scientific knowledge that can be quantified

  Current use of environmental control technologies in water, air and pollution

  There is a considerable gap in many scientific knowledge about understanding and controlling the complex interactions between human activities and nature

  Many environmental problems can use current technology to eliminate or reduce, but because lack of willingness to do so or in many cases because of the lack of resources to do so, these environmental problems are not processing

  Some important definitions:

  In this book, they are used for the first time, and definitions are displayed in either capital or black

  The environment is the habitat of material life around us, and here we can see, hear, touch, smell, and taste

  System according to Webster's dictionary, is defined as "a group or series of can form a unit or organic whole interrelated things", for example, the solar system, irrigation system, supply system, the world and the universe.

  Pollution is defined as "in the atmosphere, water or land in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of undesirable change, this change harmful to affect the health of humans or other organisms, survival, or activities".

  When the goal of improving environmental quality is used to improve human welfare, the word "environment" expands to include all social, economic and cultural content. This expansion is unfeasible in many real situations and is impractical in a textbook designed for a semester course. Our investigation of environmental problems is therefore limited to our definition of "environment".

  The interaction of the system

  Many different environmental problems are linked to water, air or land systems. Many of these problems apply only to one of these systems, providing sufficient justification for the breakdown of these categories. Such classification is also more useful and easy to understand the related problems in a system. Moreover, it is wise to do so, this is because as a result of the management and administrative reasons, these related to air pollution, water supply, wastewater treatment and solid waste treatment subdomains are usually handled by government agencies, respectively.

  Unfortunately, many important environmental problems are not limited to air, water or land systems, but also intersystem interactions. For example, the acid rain problem arises from the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emitted from power plant chimneys, smelters and car exhausts. Then the gas is transported by air to the vast area, and the rain "washes them away", producing acid rain that is harmful to aquatic life, forests and crops. Two environmental problems related to interaction between systems: the increasing global problem of carbon dioxide in the air, and the problem of endemic acid rain.

  Environmental problems

  Many of the major improvements to our standard of living can be attributed to the use of science and technology. Here are some examples. Can you come up with other examples?

  Produce more and better quality food

  Creating protection and living space to avoid extreme environments

  Rapid and reliable transport methods

  The invention of various communication systems

  The invention of machines for human and animal physical strength

  Safe water supply and waste disposal

  The elimination of many infectious diseases

  The elimination of most water-borne diseases by using improved water technology in developed countries

  Provide opportunities for cultural and recreational activities through the effectiveness of better productivity (brought by) leisure time.

  Avoid the worst effects of natural disasters such as floods, droughts, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

  However, these improvements have resulted in adverse adverse effects, such as loss of arable land, lost forests, environmental pollution and new organisms that are resistant to control. Many of the little things that were initially thought to be harmful are now considered to be a potential threat to nature and humans. In agricultural society, people basically live in harmony with nature, grow food, collect wood, and make clothes and tools that come from the land. Waste from animals and humans has been returned to earth as fertilizer. There are few problems with water, land or air pollution.

  Ancient cities, especially cities like the Roman empire, had systems for water supply and disposal of waste. Ancient Roman cities (approximately one million people) were supplied by the ditches in the ancient Roman drains. This is one of the most famous and early examples of sewers built in these systems. Urban technology in ancient cities seemed to have been forgotten for centuries by europeans who built cities. Water supply and waste treatment are neglected, resulting in many outbreaks of diarrhea, cholera, typhoid and other water-borne diseases. Until the middle of the 19th century, people realize the carrying pathogenic organism pollution wastewater error handling, since the 19th century in Britain, Europe and North America since the industrial revolution, grows increasingly fuelled by urbanization and industrialization of the environment. Both urbanization and industrialization were the basic causes of water and air pollution that could not be processed at that time.

  In the following decades, the rapid development of water quality and some wastewater treatment technologies in developed countries resulted in a sharp reduction in water pollution incidents. Note that all wastes are discharged into the environment, thereby contaminating our water, air and land systems.

  【翻译】

  这本书主要关于什么?

  这本书的目标是使工程和科学的学生了解学科间的研究环境问题:它们的起因,为什么它们被关注,我们怎么控制它们。这本书包括:

  描述环境和环境系统意味着什么

  关于环境破坏基础原因的信息

  理解环境问题本质和能够定量计算它们所必要的基本科学知识

  目前运用在水, 空气, 污染问题的环境控制技术的状况

  我们目前在很多关于理解和控制人类活动、自然之间复杂相互作用的科学知识上存在着相当大的空白

  很多环境问题能运用目前的技术消除或减少,但因为社会缺少意愿这么做或在很多例子中因为缺乏资源去这样做,这些环境问题没有被处理

  一些重要的定义:

  在这本书中,它们第一次被使用,定义被以大写或印刷成黑体字的形式展示

  环境是围绕在我们周围的物质生命的栖息地,在这儿我们能看到, 听到, 触摸, 闻到, 和品尝到

  系统依据韦氏字典, 被定义为“一组或一系列能形成一个整体或者有机整体的相互关联的事物”,例如,太阳系统,灌溉系统,供应系统,世界和宇宙。

  污染被定义为“在大气,水或土地中的物质的,化学的或生物的特性的不合意的改变,这一改变有害地影响人类或其它生物的健康,生存,或活动”。

  当改进环境质量的目标被用来改进人类福利,“环境”一词扩展成包括所有的社会,经济和文化方面的内容。这一扩展在许多真实情况下是不可行的以及在一本被设计为一学期课程的教科书中也是不实际的。我们对环境问题的考察因此限于我们对“环境”的定义。

  系统的相互作用

  许多不同的环境问题都与水,空气或土地系统有关联。许多这些问题都只适用于这些系统中的一个,这为这些种类中的细目分类提供了充分的理由。这样的分类也更有用于及易于理解一个系统内的相关问题。而且,这样做是明智的,这是因为由于管理上的和行政上的原因,这些有关空气污染,水供应,废水处理和固体废物处理的子域通常由政府机构分别处理。

  很遗憾的是,很多重要的环境问题不仅仅限制于空气,水或土地系统,还包括系统间的相互作用。现在举个例子,酸雨问题起源于从发电站烟囱,冶炼厂和汽车尾气中向大气排放的含硫二氧化物和氮氧化物。接着这些气体由气流运输到广阔的区域,降雨“将它们洗去”,产生了有害于水生生命,森林和农作物的酸雨。两个有关于系统间相互作用引起的环境问题有:空气中的二氧化碳的增加的全球问题,及通常具有地域性质的酸雨问题。

  环境问题

  许多对我们生活标准的主要改进能被归因于科学和技术的运用。这里举一些例子,你能想出其它例子吗?

  生产更多及更好质量的食物

  创造能避免极端环境的保护所和生存空间

  快速和可靠的运输方法的建立

  各种交流系统的发明

  代替人类和动物体力的机器的发明

  安全水的供应和废物处理

  对很多传染疾病的消除

  通过在发达国家运用改进的水技术对大部分水传染的疾病的消除

  通过更好的生产力(带来的)闲余时间的有效性,为文化的,娱乐的活动提供机会。

  避免例如洪水,干旱,地震,火山爆发的自然灾害的最坏影响

  然而,通过这些改进,已经带来了不良的负面影响,例如耕地的丧失,消失的森林,环境的污染和抵抗控制的新生物。很多影响起初被认为只是有害的小事现在被认为是对自然和人类的潜在威胁。在农业社会,人们基本上与自然和谐相处,栽培食物,收集木材,制造来源于土地的衣服和工具。来源于动物和人类的废物被归还于土地作为肥料。很少有水、土地或者空气污染问题的发生。

  古代城市,特别是像罗马帝国的城市,有供水和处置废物的系统。古罗马的大排泄沟中的沟渠供应古代罗马城市(大约有1百万人)安全水,这是最有名及在这些系统中最早建造的下水道的例子之一。古代城市的城市技术似乎已经被那些建造城市的欧洲人遗忘了很多个世纪。水供应和废物处理被忽略,导致了很多痢疾,霍乱,伤寒和其它水传染疾病的爆发。直到19世纪中期,(人们)才认识到对 携带着致病生物的 污染废水的错误处理,自从19世纪发生于英国、欧洲和北美的工业革命以来,日益俱增的城市化和工业化加剧了环境问题。城市化及工业化这两个现象,都是当时不能处理的水及空气污染的基本原因。

  在接着的几十年,发生于发达国家中水质及部分废水的治理技术的快速发展,导致了水污染疾病事件的急剧减少。注意所有废物被排放进环境,因而污染了我们的水,空气和土地系统。


汽车专业英语课文翻译 化工专业英语课文翻译 园艺专业英语课文翻译 食品专业英语课文翻译 护理专业英语课文翻译 化学专业英语课文翻译 保护环境英语作文翻译 学术综合英语课文翻译 英语必修四课文翻译 八下英语课文翻译 八上英语课文翻译 九年级英语课文翻译 九上英语课文翻译 学术英语管理课文翻译 英语国家概况课文翻译 英语必修五课文翻译 生物专业英语课文翻译 焊接专业英语课文翻译 物流专业英语课文翻译

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