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  What is the book about?

  The goal of the book is to enable engineering and science students to understand the environmental issues of interdisciplinary research: their causes, why they are concerned, and how we control them. This book includes:

  What does it mean to describe the environment and the environment

  Information on the underlying causes of environmental destruction

  Understand the nature of environmental problems and the basic scientific knowledge that can be quantified

  Current use of environmental control technologies in water, air and pollution

  There is a considerable gap in many scientific knowledge about understanding and controlling the complex interactions between human activities and nature

  Many environmental problems can use current technology to eliminate or reduce, but because lack of willingness to do so or in many cases because of the lack of resources to do so, these environmental problems are not processing

  Some important definitions:

  In this book, they are used for the first time, and definitions are displayed in either capital or black

  The environment is the habitat of material life around us, and here we can see, hear, touch, smell, and taste

  System according to Webster's dictionary, is defined as "a group or series of can form a unit or organic whole interrelated things", for example, the solar system, irrigation system, supply system, the world and the universe.

  Pollution is defined as "in the atmosphere, water or land in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of undesirable change, this change harmful to affect the health of humans or other organisms, survival, or activities".

  When the goal of improving environmental quality is used to improve human welfare, the word "environment" expands to include all social, economic and cultural content. This expansion is unfeasible in many real situations and is impractical in a textbook designed for a semester course. Our investigation of environmental problems is therefore limited to our definition of "environment".

  The interaction of the system

  Many different environmental problems are linked to water, air or land systems. Many of these problems apply only to one of these systems, providing sufficient justification for the breakdown of these categories. Such classification is also more useful and easy to understand the related problems in a system. Moreover, it is wise to do so, this is because as a result of the management and administrative reasons, these related to air pollution, water supply, wastewater treatment and solid waste treatment subdomains are usually handled by government agencies, respectively.

  Unfortunately, many important environmental problems are not limited to air, water or land systems, but also intersystem interactions. For example, the acid rain problem arises from the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emitted from power plant chimneys, smelters and car exhausts. Then the gas is transported by air to the vast area, and the rain "washes them away", producing acid rain that is harmful to aquatic life, forests and crops. Two environmental problems related to interaction between systems: the increasing global problem of carbon dioxide in the air, and the problem of endemic acid rain.

  Environmental problems

  Many of the major improvements to our standard of living can be attributed to the use of science and technology. Here are some examples. Can you come up with other examples?

  Produce more and better quality food

  Creating protection and living space to avoid extreme environments

  Rapid and reliable transport methods

  The invention of various communication systems

  The invention of machines for human and animal physical strength

  Safe water supply and waste disposal

  The elimination of many infectious diseases

  The elimination of most water-borne diseases by using improved water technology in developed countries

  Provide opportunities for cultural and recreational activities through the effectiveness of better productivity (brought by) leisure time.

  Avoid the worst effects of natural disasters such as floods, droughts, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

  However, these improvements have resulted in adverse adverse effects, such as loss of arable land, lost forests, environmental pollution and new organisms that are resistant to control. Many of the little things that were initially thought to be harmful are now considered to be a potential threat to nature and humans. In agricultural society, people basically live in harmony with nature, grow food, collect wood, and make clothes and tools that come from the land. Waste from animals and humans has been returned to earth as fertilizer. There are few problems with water, land or air pollution.

  Ancient cities, especially cities like the Roman empire, had systems for water supply and disposal of waste. Ancient Roman cities (approximately one million people) were supplied by the ditches in the ancient Roman drains. This is one of the most famous and early examples of sewers built in these systems. Urban technology in ancient cities seemed to have been forgotten for centuries by europeans who built cities. Water supply and waste treatment are neglected, resulting in many outbreaks of diarrhea, cholera, typhoid and other water-borne diseases. Until the middle of the 19th century, people realize the carrying pathogenic organism pollution wastewater error handling, since the 19th century in Britain, Europe and North America since the industrial revolution, grows increasingly fuelled by urbanization and industrialization of the environment. Both urbanization and industrialization were the basic causes of water and air pollution that could not be processed at that time.

  In the following decades, the rapid development of water quality and some wastewater treatment technologies in developed countries resulted in a sharp reduction in water pollution incidents. Note that all wastes are discharged into the environment, thereby contaminating our water, air and land systems.







  目前运用在水, 空气, 污染问题的环境控制技术的状况





  环境是围绕在我们周围的物质生命的栖息地,在这儿我们能看到, 听到, 触摸, 闻到, 和品尝到

  系统依据韦氏字典, 被定义为“一组或一系列能形成一个整体或者有机整体的相互关联的事物”,例如,太阳系统,灌溉系统,供应系统,世界和宇宙。



















  古代城市,特别是像罗马帝国的城市,有供水和处置废物的系统。古罗马的大排泄沟中的沟渠供应古代罗马城市(大约有1百万人)安全水,这是最有名及在这些系统中最早建造的下水道的例子之一。古代城市的城市技术似乎已经被那些建造城市的欧洲人遗忘了很多个世纪。水供应和废物处理被忽略,导致了很多痢疾,霍乱,伤寒和其它水传染疾病的爆发。直到19世纪中期,(人们)才认识到对 携带着致病生物的 污染废水的错误处理,自从19世纪发生于英国、欧洲和北美的工业革命以来,日益俱增的城市化和工业化加剧了环境问题。城市化及工业化这两个现象,都是当时不能处理的水及空气污染的基本原因。


汽车专业英语课文翻译 化工专业英语课文翻译 园艺专业英语课文翻译 食品专业英语课文翻译 护理专业英语课文翻译 化学专业英语课文翻译 保护环境英语作文翻译 学术综合英语课文翻译 英语必修四课文翻译 八下英语课文翻译 八上英语课文翻译 九年级英语课文翻译 九上英语课文翻译 学术英语管理课文翻译 英语国家概况课文翻译 英语必修五课文翻译 生物专业英语课文翻译 焊接专业英语课文翻译 物流专业英语课文翻译


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